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Percezione ed esperienza di studenti, assistenti di tirocinio e tutor universitari in relazione all’implementazione di una Dedicated Education Unit: una ricerca qualitativa con focus group

Loris Bonetti, Manuela Cattalani, Angela Pacciani, Cristina Angelini, Patrizia Basile, Maria Cristina Currà, Ernesto Evicelli, Daniela Spotti, Carmela Crisalide, Giuseppina Ledonne

Abstract

SCOPO: analizzare percezione e esperienza di studenti, infermieri assistenti di tirocinio e tutor universitari a seguito dell’implementazione di una Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) in un reparto di medicina ad indirizzo pneumologico.

METODO: il disegno di studio utilizzato è di tipo qualitativo descrittivo. I dati sono stati raccolti attraverso focus groups (FGs). Sono stati organizzati quattro FGs, uno per ciascun gruppo di stakeholder (studenti, infermieri e tutor) ed uno conclusivo con tutti. Per l’analisi dei FGs è stata utilizzata l’analisi qualitativa del contenuto. È stato somministrato il questionario CLES+T agli studenti, per confermare i dati qualitativi.

RISULTATI: partecipanti: 6 tutor, 7 infermieri e 10 studenti (6 primo anno, 2 secondo anno, 2 terzo anno). L’esperienza è stata positiva. I temi emersi rispetto agli aspetti positivi sono quattro, alcuni trasversali, altri specifici: 1.Briefing e debriefing come occasione di confronto e apprendimento (trasversale), 2.Potenzialità peer education (trasversale), 3. Presa in cura globale e olistica (studenti), 4.Tutor Universitario presente nella clinica come risorsa(trasversale). Per quanto riguarda le criticità è emerso un macro-tema, riferito alle “Peculiarità organizzative”, che contiene tre sotto-temi: 1.Carico di lavoro (tutor e infermieri), 2.Disomogeneità comportamento/atteggiamento infermieri e tutor(trasversale), 3. Mancanza rapporto personale studente/assistente di tirocinio (studenti). Le proposte migliorative sono tutte legate alle peculiarità organizzative.

CONCLUSIONI: Questo studio riporta per la prima volta una sperimentazione a livello italiano del modello di organizzazione del tirocinio DEU. L’esperienza è stata molto positiva, ha favorito la possibilità di riflessione durante l’esperienza, ha permesso alla realtà clinica e all’ambiente universitario di dialogare e lavorare per l’obiettivo comune, ossia il miglior apprendimento dello studente.

Parole  Chiave: Dedicated Education Unit, Ricerca qualitativa, Focus groups, Ambiente apprendimento clinico, Percezione.

 

Students, clinical nurse preceptors and academic tutors’ perception and experience in relation to the implementation of a Dedicated Education Unit: a qualitative study using focus group.

OBJECTIVE: analyse students, clinical nurse preceptors and academic tutors’ perception and experience further to the implementation of a Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) in a pulmonary medicine ward.

METHOD: The study follows a qualitative descriptive method. Data have been collected through focus groups (FGs). We have organized four different FGs, a specific focus group for each stakeholder (students, nurses and tutors) and a closing one with everybody. Each FG followed a qualitative content analysis method. Students had to fill in the CLES+T questionnaire to confirm qualitative data.

RESULTS: Participants: 6 tutors, 7 nurses and 10 students (i.e. 6 first-year, 2 second-year and 2 third-year students). The experience has been positive. We have found four different themes, both cross-sectional and specific, in relation to positive aspects. 1. Briefing and debriefing as discussion and learning opportunities (cross-sectional); 2. Peer education potentialities (cross-sectional); 3. Global and holistic care (students); 4. Academic tutors as ward resources (cross-sectional). In relation to critical aspects, instead, we have highlighted a macro-theme, which refers to “Organizational peculiarities” and is composed of three subthemes: 1. Workload (tutors and nurses); 2. Inhomogeneity in nurses and tutors’ behaviour/attitude (cross-sectional); 3. Lack of a personal relationship between students and training assistants (students). All the ameliorative proposals are related to organizational peculiarities.

CONCLUSION: This study reports the first Italian experimentation of the DEU training organization model. The experience has been very positive: it has not only promoted a moment’s reflection but also provided the opportunity for both the Clinical and the Academic setting to discuss and collaborate to reach the common goal, i.e. best student learning.

Keywords: Dedicated Education Unit, Qualitative research, Focus groups, Clinical learning environment, Perception

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