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I temi più citati nella ricerca nell’ambito della Salute Mentale: analisi di sei riviste internazionali infermieristiche e mediche

Laura Cunico, Susanna Fredo, Massimo Bernini

Abstract

Introduzione: L’obiettivo della revisione è individuare le tematiche principali su cui si è concentrata maggiormente la ricerca infermieristica e medica nell’ambito della salute mentale, valutarne le differenze e discutere le problematiche che possono sorgere nello svolgimento della ricerca in questo settore.

Metodi: Abbiamo analizzato la ricerca pubblicata in 4 riviste specialistiche della salute mentale/psichiatria: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing; American Journal of Psychiatry, Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry e in 2 riviste generaliste dell’area infermieristica e medica: Journal of Advanced Nursing e Lancet. Gli anni considerati 2012-2015 per le riviste specialistiche, il secondo semestre del 2012 e 2014 e il primo del 2013 e 2015 per le generiche. Esclusi gli editoriali, i commenti, i contributi riguardanti modelli, teorie. Dalla lettura e conseguente analisi sono stati individuati 9 temi e per ogni tema le categorie di pertinenza. Per la categoria diagnostica il riferimento è l’International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - versione 10 (ICD-10). Risultati: Dall’analisi di 2099 abstracts emerge un orientamento generale della ricerca sui disturbi dell’umore, schizofrenia, dipendenze e co-morbidità. Nella ricerca medica, gli antidepressivi sono i farmaci più studiati e tra le psicoterapie, la terapia cognitivo comportamentale. Nella ricerca infermieristica: la relazione infermiere-paziente, l’aderenza e monitoraggio della terapia farmacologica, l’organizzazione delle cure, il clima lavorativo, la formazione infermieristica e l’efficacia di training. La sperimentazione clinica è più frequente nella ricerca medica, si dimezza in quella infermieristica dove prevale la ricerca qualitativa. Conclusioni: La sfida della ricerca sarà quella di trovare un nuovo paradigma adeguato alla psichiatria del futuro che avrà a disposizione dati sul genoma del singolo paziente e che dovrà utilizzare, routinariamente, biomarkers per una terapia personalizzata. Ulteriore sfida potrebbe essere la promozione di progetti di ricerca collaborativa tra infermieri e medici e l’acquisizione di competenze nuove degli operatori necessarie per affrontare la riduzione dell’aspettativa di vita dei pazienti psichiatrici, per la cura delle patologie organiche, oltre alla gestione della psicopatologia.

Parole chiave: ricerca infermieristica in ambito psichiatrico, ricerca medica in ambito psichiatrico, salute mentale.

The most cited themes in the research in the field of Mental Health: analyses of six international nursing and medical journals

Introduction: The review aimed to identify and analyse the future development on the topic by analysing the main themes discussed in number of scientific journal focused on Mental Health both by nurses and physicians..

Method: 4 international journals focused on Mental health and psychiatry International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, American Journal of Psychiatry, Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry as well as two journal focused generically on health, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Lancet were scrutinized. We have analysed the papers of 2012-2015 for the specialised journals and last and first 6 months of 2012 and 2013 and 2014-2015 for the generic. Editorials, comments and contributions regarding theoretical models were exluded. From the analysis we identified 9 themes and for each theme the pertinent category. For the diagnostic grouping we used the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision.

Results: A trend in research about mood disorders, schizophrenia and addictions and comorbidity emerged according to the 2099 abstracts analysed. Within medical research antidepressants were the most studied psychotropic medication and cognitive behaviour therapy was the most studied psychotherapy. Within nursing research: the nurse–patient relationship, adherence and monitoring of pharmacological therapy, the treatment planning and the working environment, the nursing training and its efficacy. The clinical research trials were twice as frequent in the medical versus nursing research where qualitative research prevails.

Conclusions: The research challenge will be to find a new paradigm fit for the future psychiatry having at its disposition the patient’s genoma, and needing to routinely use biomarkers for a personalised therapy. A further challenge might be the promotion of interprofessional research between doctors and nurses and the acquisition of new competences of health professionals needed to tackle the reduced life expectancy of psychiatric patients and to address not only their mental illnesses but also their physical ailments.

Key words: psychiatric nursing research, psychiatric medical research, mental health.

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