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Cure infermieristiche compassionevoli: l’esperienza degli infermieri italiani

Paola De Carlo, Denise Guerra, Maria Luisa Rega, Caterina Galletti

Abstract

Scopo: Nella letteratura infermieristica internazionale compassion e compassionate care hanno assunto una notevole importanza e si rivelano essere un fenomeno in divenire. Il concetto di compassionate nursing care risulta poco descritto ed oggettivato nella pratica infermieristica nel nostro Paese. Scopo di questo studio è stato di descrivere le esperienze di un campione di infermieri italiani circa il significato di cure infermieristiche compassionevoli.

Metodo: È stato condotto uno studio qualitativo. Per la raccolta dei dati sono stati utilizzati i focus group, per analizzare i dati trascritti è stata utilizzata l’analisi di contenuto (Graneheim, & Lundman, 2004). Per lo studio è stato individuato un campione propositivo di 21 infermieri, di questi 15 hanno dato la disponibilità a partecipare.

Risultati e discussione: Tutti i partecipanti hanno espresso liberamente le loro opinioni. Dall’analisi dei dati relativi alle quattro aree indagate con i focus group (definizione, la propria esperienza, tipologie di pazienti e formazione alle cure infermieristiche compassionevoli) sono emersi aspetti contrastanti che variano da accezioni negative e negazione dei termini stessi a significati positivi di amore, carità, empatia, supporto, sostegno, relazione. Interessante ed innovativo è stato l’attribuire l’insegnamento delle cure compassionevoli ai parenti.

Conclusioni: E’ risultato difficile per i partecipanti dare una definizione precisa sul significato di cure infermieristiche compassionevoli. E’ emersa la necessità e il desiderio di approfondire questo tema che risulta essere originale e un punto di forza per migliorare l’assistenza infermieristica. Infatti, puntare al recupero di questi valori educando gli infermieri ad erogare cure infermieristiche compassionevoli può sicuramente rappresentare un’implicazione futura per la professione.

Parole chiave: compassione, cure infermieristiche compassionevoli, nursing, focus group.

Compassionate nursing care: the experience of italian nurses

Aim: In international nursing literature “compassion” and “compassionate care” has acquired a considerable importance and it’s considered to be a growing phenomenon. The approach to the application of compassionate care to patients is clearly not well-defined in Italian nursing. The aim of this study is to define what compassionate care is through the analysis of Italian nurses’ experiences.

Method: The research is based on a qualitative method. Content analysis was used to analyze the transcript data (Graneheim, & Lundman, 2004). The research has been carried out by creating three focus groups, for a total of 15 nurses.

Results: All the participants expressed their opinions freely. The outcomes of the analysis can be grouped in four areas: definition of compassion and compassionate care; categorisation of patients; provision of care; and formation and training in compassionate care. The survey has shown contrasting opinions, negative opinions such as feelings of rejections and positive opinions such as love, charity, empathy and support. The last one (support) in particular has highlighted the importance of involving the patient’s relatives in providing compassionate care.

Conclusions: It is difficult to define exactly the meaning of compassion and compassionate care.This study has contributed to extend and deep the current knowledge in regard of the concept of compas-sionate care applied to assistance entities. Further research is needed in the field of compassionate care to strength the effectiveness of assistance provided by nurses.

Key words: compassion; compassionate care; nursing, focus group.

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